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Pope Innocent III Proclaims Spain In Need of Crusade
Fernando III of Castile-Leon Conquers Córdoba
Fernando III of Castile-Leon conquers the city of Córdoba, having recently taken Jaen. By 1238, Jaime I of Aragon captures Valencia, Tortosa, and Jativa, valued for its extensive papermaking industry.
Muhammad ibn Nasr Cooperates Militarily With Fernando III
Muhammad ibn Nasr, ruler of Granada, cooperates militarily with Fernando III against other Muslim leaders. In exchange, Fernando III agrees to accept tribute payments from Granada instead of conquering it.
Fernando III Conquers Seville
Fernando III conquers Seville after a 16-month siege. Numerous Muslim refugees seek safety in Granada, the last Muslim kingdom in Iberia. The Mudejar leader, Al-Azraq, leads a 10-year guerilla war against Jaime I in the region of Valencia.
Alfonso X Consolidates Power
Alfonso X, the eldest son of Fernando III and husband of Jaime I’s daughter, consolidates power as ruler of the largest Christian kingdom in Iberia. As “Emperor of the Three Faiths,” he fosters a relatively tolerant atmosphere for Jews and Muslims living under his rule. Known as “El Sabio” (“The Learned”), Alfonso X established a new translation center in Seville. He also authored the Alfonsine Tables, based on calculations of Andalusi astronomer, Al-Zarqali. In addition, he began developing a new code of laws, called the Siete Partidas (“Seven-Part Code”).
Large Communities of Jews Reside In cities Under Christian Rule
Large communities of Jews reside in juderías in cities under Christian rule. Similar neighborhoods, called morerías, house Mudejar Muslims. They decide to remain under Christian rule rather than emigrate to Granada or North Africa. Christian rulers offer incentives to northern Christians to settle into newly conquered areas. However, Muslims continue to perform much of the agricultural, construction, and artisan work.
Civil Wars Ignite In Castile
Civil wars ignite in Castile between nobles. King Dinis of Portugal and King Fernando IV of Castile sign a treaty to define the borders of Portugal. These borders remain today.
Ramon Llull of Mallorca Dies
Philosopher and scholar Ramon Llull of Mallorca dies. He advocated the study of Arabic to more effectively convert Muslims to Christianity. At one point, he preached for unification of the three monotheistic faiths and discouraged military engagement.
King Alfonso XI of Castile and King Afonso IV of Portugal Join Forces
King Alfonso XI of Castile and King Afonso IV of Portugal join forces. They fight against the combined army of the Marinid ruler from North Africa, Abu al-Hasan Ali, and the Nasrid ruler of Granada, Yusuf I.
Bubonic Plague Reaches Europe
The Bubonic Plague reaches Europe, eventually killing one-third of Europe’s population. Jews face increasing suspicion and persecution, and are burned at the stake in France.