The taifa rulers, Ibn Buluggin of Granada and Al-Mu’tamid of Seville, invite the Almoravid leader, Yusuf ibn Tashufin, to Al-Andalus to prevent further losses to the Christians. The Almoravids defeat Alfonso VI’s forces at the Battle of Zallaqa. Several years later, ibn Tashufin returns to take control of numerous taifa…
Alfonso VI of León-Castile Takes Control of Toledo
Alfonso VI of León-Castile takes control of Toledo, where he once sought refuge under the Muslim king, Mamun, from his brother Sancho, and claims the title of “Emperor of All Spains.” Alfonso supports the translation of Arabic scientific works into Latin and permits six parishes in the city to continue…
Rulers of Zaragosa Build the Aljafería Fortress and Palace
The Banu Hud rulers of Zaragosa build the Aljafería fortress and palace. Rodrigo Díaz (El Cid) becomes a mercenary after being exiled by Alfonso IV of Castile. El Cid enters the service of the Muslim rulers of Zaragosa. At the Battle of Almenar in 1082, El Cid’s Zaragosan forces defeat…
al-Mu’tamid, the Amir of Seville, Agrees to Pay a Tribute
The Berber Zirid rulers of Granada reject a Castilian demand for tribute, but al-Mu’tamid, the amir of Seville, agrees to pay. A joint Muslim-Castilian force makes raids in the region of Granada. Muslim Toledo takes control of Córdoba from Seville with the help of Castilian troops.
Castilians Under Sancho II and Rodrigo Díaz (El Cid) Defeat the Leónese
The Castilians under Sancho II and Rodrigo Díaz (El Cid) defeat the Leónese. Alfonso VI of León leads a campaign against Muslim Badajoz, a province of western Spain, but withdraws when the amir, Mamun of Toledo, intercedes.
Abu Ishaq Rebukes the Berber Rulers
Granadan scholar Abu Ishaq writes a lengthy poem rebuking the Berber rulers of the city and accusing the wazir, Joseph Ha-Nagid, of having too much political influence. His followers kill the wazir and massacre several hundred Jews in Granada.