Fernando III conquers Seville after a 16-month siege. Numerous Muslim refugees seek safety in Granada, the last Muslim kingdom in Iberia. The Mudejar leader, Al-Azraq, leads a 10-year guerilla war against Jaime I in the region of Valencia.
Muhammad ibn Nasr, ruler of Granada, cooperates militarily with Fernando III against other Muslim leaders. In exchange, Fernando III agrees to accept tribute payments from Granada instead of conquering it.
Fernando III of Castile-Leon conquers the city of Córdoba, having recently taken Jaen. By 1238, Jaime I of Aragon captures Valencia, Tortosa, and Jativa, valued for its extensive papermaking industry.
Pope Innocent III proclaims Spain as a region in need of Crusade. At the Fourth Lateran Council, the “Badge of Shame” is instituted, requiring Jews in Christian lands to wear a patch to distinguish themselves. Jaime I (James I) of Aragon welcomes Jews in his kingdom. King Fernando III of…